# Chapter 11 Simulation

## 11.1 Single Subject solving

Originally, RxODE was only created to solve ODEs for one individual. That is a single system without any changes in individual parameters.

Of course this is still supported, the classic examples are found in RxODE intro.

This article discusses the differences between multiple subject and single subject solving. There are three differences:

• Single solving does not solve each ID in parallel
• Single solving lacks the `id` column in parameters(`\$params`) as well as in the actual dataset.
• Single solving allows parameter exploration easier because each parameter can be modified. With multiple subject solves, you have to make sure to update each individual parameter.

The first obvious difference is in speed; With multiple subjects you can run each subject ID in parallel. For more information and examples of the speed gains with multiple subject solving see the Speeding up RxODE vignette.

The next difference is the amount of information output in the final data.

Taking the 2 compartment indirect response model originally in the tutorial:

``````library(RxODE)
mod1 <-RxODE({
KA=2.94E-01
CL=1.86E+01
V2=4.02E+01
Q=1.05E+01
V3=2.97E+02
Kin=1
Kout=1
EC50=200
C2 = centr/V2
C3 = peri/V3
d/dt(depot) =-KA*depot
d/dt(centr) = KA*depot - CL*C2 - Q*C2 + Q*C3
d/dt(peri)  =                    Q*C2 - Q*C3
d/dt(eff)  = Kin - Kout*(1-C2/(EC50+C2))*eff
eff(0) = 1
})

et <- et(amount.units='mg', time.units='hours') %>%
et(dose=10000, addl=9, ii=12) %>%
et(amt=20000, nbr.doses=5, start.time=120, dosing.interval=24) %>%
et(0:240) # sampling``````

Now a simple solve

``````x <- rxSolve(mod1, et)
x``````
``````#> ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂ Solved RxODE object ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂
#> ── Parameters (x\$params): ──────────────────────────────────
#>      KA      CL      V2       Q      V3     Kin    Kout    EC50
#>   0.294  18.600  40.200  10.500 297.000   1.000   1.000 200.000
#> ── Initial Conditions (x\$inits): ───────────────────────────
#> depot centr  peri   eff
#>     0     0     0     1
#> ── First part of data (object): ────────────────────────────
#> # A tibble: 241 x 7
#>    time    C2    C3  depot centr  peri   eff
#>     [h] <dbl> <dbl>  <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#> 1     0   0   0     10000     0     0   1
#> 2     1  44.4 0.920  7453. 1784.  273.  1.08
#> 3     2  54.9 2.67   5554. 2206.  794.  1.18
#> 4     3  51.9 4.46   4140. 2087. 1324.  1.23
#> 5     4  44.5 5.98   3085. 1789. 1776.  1.23
#> 6     5  36.5 7.18   2299. 1467. 2132.  1.21
#> # … with 235 more rows
#> ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂``````
``print(x)``
``````#> ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂ Solved RxODE object ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂
#> ── Parameters (\$params): ───────────────────────────────────
#>      KA      CL      V2       Q      V3     Kin    Kout    EC50
#>   0.294  18.600  40.200  10.500 297.000   1.000   1.000 200.000
#> ── Initial Conditions (\$inits): ────────────────────────────
#> depot centr  peri   eff
#>     0     0     0     1
#> ── First part of data (object): ────────────────────────────
#> # A tibble: 241 x 7
#>    time    C2    C3  depot centr  peri   eff
#>     [h] <dbl> <dbl>  <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#> 1     0   0   0     10000     0     0   1
#> 2     1  44.4 0.920  7453. 1784.  273.  1.08
#> 3     2  54.9 2.67   5554. 2206.  794.  1.18
#> 4     3  51.9 4.46   4140. 2087. 1324.  1.23
#> 5     4  44.5 5.98   3085. 1789. 1776.  1.23
#> 6     5  36.5 7.18   2299. 1467. 2132.  1.21
#> # … with 235 more rows
#> ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂``````
``plot(x, C2, eff)``

To better see the differences between the single solve, you can solve for 2 individuals

``x2 <- rxSolve(mod1, et %>% et(id=1:2), params=data.frame(CL=c(18.6, 7.6)))``
``````#> Warning: 'ID' missing in 'parameters' dataset
#> individual parameters are assumed to have the same order as the event dataset``````
``print(x2)``
``````#> ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂ Solved RxODE object ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂
#> ── Parameters (\$params): ───────────────────────────────────
#> # A tibble: 2 x 9
#>   id       KA    CL    V2     Q    V3   Kin  Kout  EC50
#>   <fct> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#> 1 1     0.294  18.6  40.2  10.5   297     1     1   200
#> 2 2     0.294   7.6  40.2  10.5   297     1     1   200
#> ── Initial Conditions (\$inits): ────────────────────────────
#> depot centr  peri   eff
#>     0     0     0     1
#> ── First part of data (object): ────────────────────────────
#> # A tibble: 482 x 8
#>      id  time    C2    C3  depot centr  peri   eff
#>   <int>   [h] <dbl> <dbl>  <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#> 1     1     0   0   0     10000     0     0   1
#> 2     1     1  44.4 0.920  7453. 1784.  273.  1.08
#> 3     1     2  54.9 2.67   5554. 2206.  794.  1.18
#> 4     1     3  51.9 4.46   4140. 2087. 1324.  1.23
#> 5     1     4  44.5 5.98   3085. 1789. 1776.  1.23
#> 6     1     5  36.5 7.18   2299. 1467. 2132.  1.21
#> # … with 476 more rows
#> ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂``````
``plot(x2, C2, eff)``

By observing the two solves, you can see:

• A multiple subject solve contains the `id` column both in the data frame and then data frame of parameters for each subject.

The last feature that is not as obvious, modifying the individual parameters. For single subject data, you can modify the RxODE data frame changing initial conditions and parameter values as if they were part of the data frame, as described in the RxODE Data Frames.

For multiple subject solving, this feature still works, but requires care when supplying each individual’s parameter value, otherwise you may change the solve and drop parameter for key individuals.

### 11.1.1 Summary of Single solve vs Multiple subject solving

Feature Single Subject Solve Multiple Subject Solve
Parallel None Each Subject
\$params data.frame with one parameter value data.frame with one parameter per subject (w/ID column)
solved data Can modify individual parameters with \$ syntax Have to modify all the parameters to update solved object

## 11.2 Population Simulations with RxODE

### 11.2.1 Simulation of Variability with RxODE

In pharmacometrics the nonlinear-mixed effect modeling software (like nlmixr) characterizes the between-subject variability. With this between subject variability you can simulate new subjects.

Assuming that you have a 2-compartment, indirect response model, you can set create an RxODE model describing this system below:

#### 11.2.1.1 Setting up the RxODE model

``````library(RxODE)

set.seed(32)

mod <- RxODE({
eff(0) = 1
C2 = centr/V2*(1+prop.err);
C3 = peri/V3;
CL =  TCl*exp(eta.Cl) ## This is coded as a variable in the model
d/dt(depot) =-KA*depot;
d/dt(centr) = KA*depot - CL*C2 - Q*C2 + Q*C3;
d/dt(peri)  =                    Q*C2 - Q*C3;
d/dt(eff)  = Kin - Kout*(1-C2/(EC50+C2))*eff;
})``````

#### 11.2.1.2 Adding the parameter estimates

The next step is to get the parameters into R so that you can start the simulation:

``````theta <- c(KA=2.94E-01, TCl=1.86E+01, V2=4.02E+01,  # central
Q=1.05E+01, V3=2.97E+02,                # peripheral
Kin=1, Kout=1, EC50=200, prop.err=0)      # effects``````

In this case, I use `lotri` to specify the omega since it uses similar lower-triangular matrix specification as nlmixr (also similar to NONMEM):

``````### the column names of the omega matrix need to match the parameters specified by RxODE
omega <- lotri(eta.Cl ~ 0.4^2)
omega``````
``````#>        eta.Cl
#> eta.Cl   0.16``````

#### 11.2.1.3 Simulating

The next step to simulate is to create the dosing regimen for overall simulation:

``````ev <- et(amount.units="mg", time.units="hours") %>%
et(amt=10000, cmt="centr")``````

If you wish, you can also add sampling times (though now RxODE can fill these in for you):

``ev <- ev %>% et(0,48, length.out=100)``

Note the `et` takes similar arguments as `seq` when adding sampling times. There are more methods to adding sampling times and events to make complex dosing regimens (See the event vignette). This includes ways to add variability to the both the sampling and dosing times).

Once this is complete you can simulate using the `rxSolve` routine:

``sim  <- rxSolve(mod,theta,ev,omega=omega,nSub=100)``

To quickly look and customize your simulation you use the default `plot` routine. Since this is an RxODE object, it will create a `ggplot2` object that you can modify as you wish. The extra parameter to the `plot` tells `RxODE`/`R` what piece of information you are interested in plotting. In this case, we are interested in looking at the derived parameter `C2`:

#### 11.2.1.4 Checking the simulation with `plot`

``````library(ggplot2)
### The plots from RxODE are ggplots so they can be modified with
### standard ggplot commands.
plot(sim, C2, log="y") +
ylab("Central Compartment") ``````

Of course this additional parameter could also be a state value, like `eff`:

``````### They also takes many of the standard plot arguments; See ?plot
plot(sim, eff, ylab="Effect")``````

Or you could even look at the two side-by-side:

``plot(sim, C2, eff)``

Or stack them with `patchwork`

``````library(patchwork)
plot(sim, C2, log="y") / plot(sim, eff)``````

#### 11.2.1.5 Processing the data to create summary plots

Usually in pharmacometric simulations it is not enough to simply simulate the system. We have to do something easier to digest, like look at the central and extreme tendencies of the simulation.

Since the `RxODE` solve object is a type of data frame

It is now straightforward to perform calculations and generate plots with the simulated data. You can

Below, the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles of the simulated data are plotted.

``````confint(sim, "C2", level=0.95) %>%
plot(ylab="Central Concentration", log="y")``````
``#> ! in order to put confidence bands around the intervals, you need at least 2500 simulations``
``#> summarizing data...done``

``````confint(sim, "eff", level=0.95) %>%
plot(ylab="Effect")``````
``#> ! in order to put confidence bands around the intervals, you need at least 2500 simulations``
``#> summarizing data...done``

Note that you can see the parameters that were simulated for the example

``head(sim\$param)``
``````#>   sim.id   V2 prop.err  V3  TCl     eta.Cl    KA    Q Kin Kout EC50
#> 1      1 40.2        0 297 18.6  0.2368417 0.294 10.5   1    1  200
#> 2      2 40.2        0 297 18.6  0.5454099 0.294 10.5   1    1  200
#> 3      3 40.2        0 297 18.6  0.1828379 0.294 10.5   1    1  200
#> 4      4 40.2        0 297 18.6 -0.2237885 0.294 10.5   1    1  200
#> 5      5 40.2        0 297 18.6  0.4640872 0.294 10.5   1    1  200
#> 6      6 40.2        0 297 18.6 -0.2748536 0.294 10.5   1    1  200``````

#### 11.2.1.6 Simulation of unexplained variability (sigma)

In addition to conveniently simulating between subject variability, you can also easily simulate unexplained variability.

``````mod <- RxODE({
eff(0) = 1
C2 = centr/V2;
C3 = peri/V3;
CL =  TCl*exp(eta.Cl) ## This is coded as a variable in the model
d/dt(depot) =-KA*depot;
d/dt(centr) = KA*depot - CL*C2 - Q*C2 + Q*C3;
d/dt(peri)  =                    Q*C2 - Q*C3;
d/dt(eff)  = Kin - Kout*(1-C2/(EC50+C2))*eff;
e = eff+eff.err
cp = centr*(1+cp.err)
})

theta <- c(KA=2.94E-01, TCl=1.86E+01, V2=4.02E+01,  # central
Q=1.05E+01, V3=2.97E+02,                # peripheral
Kin=1, Kout=1, EC50=200)                # effects

sigma <- lotri(eff.err ~ 0.1, cp.err ~ 0.1)

sim  <- rxSolve(mod, theta, ev, omega=omega, nSub=100, sigma=sigma)
s <- confint(sim, c("eff", "centr"));``````
``#> ! in order to put confidence bands around the intervals, you need at least 2500 simulations``
``#> summarizing data...done``
``plot(s)``

#### 11.2.1.7 Simulation of Individuals

Sometimes you may want to match the dosing and observations of individuals in a clinical trial. To do this you will have to create a data.frame using the `RxODE` event specification as well as an `ID` column to indicate an individual. The RxODE event vignette talks more about how these datasets should be created.

``````library(dplyr)
ev1 <- eventTable(amount.units="mg", time.units="hours") %>%
add.dosing(dose=10000, nbr.doses=1, dosing.to=2) %>%
add.sampling(seq(0,48,length.out=10));

ev2 <- eventTable(amount.units="mg", time.units="hours") %>%
add.dosing(dose=5000, nbr.doses=1, dosing.to=2) %>%
add.sampling(seq(0,48,length.out=8));

dat <- rbind(data.frame(ID=1, ev1\$get.EventTable()),
data.frame(ID=2, ev2\$get.EventTable()))

### Note the number of subject is not needed since it is determined by the data
sim  <- rxSolve(mod, theta, dat, omega=omega, sigma=sigma)

sim %>% select(id, time, e, cp)``````
``````#>    id          time         e          cp
#> 1   1  0.000000 [h] 1.0563542 11329.59098
#> 2   1  5.333333 [h] 1.4003578   376.07820
#> 3   1 10.666667 [h] 0.0510544   117.09167
#> 4   1 16.000000 [h] 1.4589483   141.30089
#> 5   1 21.333333 [h] 1.1416624    84.85403
#> 6   1 26.666667 [h] 1.2504412    95.93320
#> 7   1 32.000000 [h] 0.9425509   144.84771
#> 8   1 37.333333 [h] 1.5173332   148.73731
#> 9   1 42.666667 [h] 1.2391798    60.69626
#> 10  1 48.000000 [h] 1.3173971    53.60546
#> 11  2  0.000000 [h] 0.7351683  5471.03043
#> 12  2  6.857143 [h] 0.7138482   109.19130
#> 13  2 13.714286 [h] 1.2041123   137.81498
#> 14  2 20.571429 [h] 1.1766657    81.08167
#> 15  2 27.428571 [h] 1.7274978    57.74205
#> 16  2 34.285714 [h] 0.4546936    60.74535
#> 17  2 41.142857 [h] 0.7159257    44.59950
#> 18  2 48.000000 [h] 1.3206859    42.03860``````

## 11.3 Simulation of Clinical Trials

By either using a simple single event table, or data from a clinical trial as described above, a complete clinical trial simulation can be performed.

Typically in clinical trial simulations you want to account for the uncertainty in the fixed parameter estimates, and even the uncertainty in both your between subject variability as well as the unexplained variability.

`RxODE` allows you to account for these uncertainties by simulating multiple virtual “studies,” specified by the parameter `nStud`. Each of these studies samples a realization of fixed effect parameters and covariance matrices for the between subject variability(`omega`) and unexplained variabilities (`sigma`). Depending on the information you have from the models, there are a few strategies for simulating a realization of the `omega` and `sigma` matrices.

The first strategy occurs when either there is not any standard errors for standard deviations (or related parameters), or there is a modeled correlation in the model you are simulating from. In that case the suggested strategy is to use the inverse Wishart (parameterized to scale to the conjugate prior)/scaled inverse chi distribution. this approach uses a single parameter to inform the variability of the covariance matrix sampled (the degrees of freedom).

The second strategy occurs if you have standard errors on the variance/standard deviation with no modeled correlations in the covariance matrix. In this approach you perform separate simulations for the standard deviations and the correlation matrix. First you simulate the variance/standard deviation components in the `thetaMat` multivariate normal simulation. After simulation and transformation to standard deviations, a correlation matrix is simulated using the degrees of freedom of your covariance matrix. Combining the simulated standard deviation with the simulated correlation matrix will give a simulated covariance matrix. For smaller dimension covariance matrices (dimension < 10x10) it is recommended you use the `lkj` distribution to simulate the correlation matrix. For higher dimension covariance matrices it is suggested you use the inverse wishart distribution (transformed to a correlation matrix) for the simulations.

The covariance/variance prior is simulated from `RxODE`s `cvPost()` function.

### 11.3.1 Simulation from inverse Wishart correlations

An example of this simulation is below:

``````### Creating covariance matrix
tmp <- matrix(rnorm(8^2), 8, 8)
tMat <- tcrossprod(tmp, tmp) / (8 ^ 2)
dimnames(tMat) <- list(NULL, names(theta))

sim  <- rxSolve(mod, theta, ev, omega=omega, nSub=100, sigma=sigma, thetaMat=tMat, nStud=10,
dfSub=10, dfObs=100)

s <-sim %>% confint(c("centr", "eff"))``````
``#> summarizing data...done``
``plot(s)``

If you wish you can see what `omega` and `sigma` was used for each virtual study by accessing them in the solved data object with `\$omega.list` and `\$sigma.list`:

``head(sim\$omega.list)``
``````#> [[1]]
#>           [,1]
#> [1,] 0.5728809
#>
#> [[2]]
#>           [,1]
#> [1,] 0.3465021
#>
#> [[3]]
#>           [,1]
#> [1,] 0.1386869
#>
#> [[4]]
#>           [,1]
#> [1,] 0.1570577
#>
#> [[5]]
#>           [,1]
#> [1,] 0.1677731
#>
#> [[6]]
#>           [,1]
#> [1,] 0.3184372``````
``head(sim\$sigma.list)``
``````#> [[1]]
#>             [,1]        [,2]
#> [1,] 0.093539238 0.007270049
#> [2,] 0.007270049 0.098648424
#>
#> [[2]]
#>              [,1]         [,2]
#> [1,]  0.109020277 -0.004127612
#> [2,] -0.004127612  0.087054268
#>
#> [[3]]
#>            [,1]       [,2]
#> [1,] 0.10606530 0.01457913
#> [2,] 0.01457913 0.10189653
#>
#> [[4]]
#>               [,1]          [,2]
#> [1,]  0.1025867133 -0.0007429996
#> [2,] -0.0007429996  0.0962922149
#>
#> [[5]]
#>              [,1]         [,2]
#> [1,]  0.098080929 -0.006730568
#> [2,] -0.006730568  0.112366768
#>
#> [[6]]
#>           [,1]      [,2]
#> [1,] 0.1123437 0.0188019
#> [2,] 0.0188019 0.1021367``````

You can also see the parameter realizations from the `\$params` data frame.

### 11.3.2 Simulate using variance/standard deviation standard errors

Lets assume we wish to simulate from the nonmem run included in xpose

First we setup the model:

``````rx1 <- RxODE({
cl <- tcl*(1+crcl.cl*(CLCR-65)) * exp(eta.v)
v <- tv * WT * exp(eta.v)
ka <- tka * exp(eta.ka)
ipred <- linCmt()
obs <- ipred * (1 + prop.sd) + add.sd
})``````

Next we input the estimated parameters:

``````theta <- c(tcl=2.63E+01, tv=1.35E+00, tka=4.20E+00, tlag=2.08E-01,
prop.sd=2.05E-01, add.sd=1.06E-02, crcl.cl=7.17E-03,
## Note that since we are using the separation strategy the ETA variances are here too
eta.cl=7.30E-02,  eta.v=3.80E-02, eta.ka=1.91E+00)``````

And also their covariances; To me, the easiest way to create a named covariance matrix is to use `lotri()`:

``````thetaMat <- lotri(
tcl + tv + tka + tlag + prop.sd + add.sd + crcl.cl + eta.cl + eta.v + eta.ka ~
c(7.95E-01,
2.05E-02, 1.92E-03,
7.22E-02, -8.30E-03, 6.55E-01,
-3.45E-03, -6.42E-05, 3.22E-03, 2.47E-04,
8.71E-04, 2.53E-04, -4.71E-03, -5.79E-05, 5.04E-04,
6.30E-04, -3.17E-06, -6.52E-04, -1.53E-05, -3.14E-05, 1.34E-05,
-3.30E-04, 5.46E-06, -3.15E-04, 2.46E-06, 3.15E-06, -1.58E-06, 2.88E-06,
-1.29E-03, -7.97E-05, 1.68E-03, -2.75E-05, -8.26E-05, 1.13E-05, -1.66E-06, 1.58E-04,
-1.23E-03, -1.27E-05, -1.33E-03, -1.47E-05, -1.03E-04, 1.02E-05, 1.67E-06, 6.68E-05, 1.56E-04,
7.69E-02, -7.23E-03, 3.74E-01, 1.79E-03, -2.85E-03, 1.18E-05, -2.54E-04, 1.61E-03, -9.03E-04, 3.12E-01))

evw <- et(amount.units="mg", time.units="hours") %>%
et(amt=100) %>%
## For this problem we will simulate with sampling windows
et(list(c(0, 0.5),
c(0.5, 1),
c(1, 3),
c(3, 6),
c(6, 12))) %>%
et(id=1:1000)

### From the run we know that:
###   total number of observations is: 476
###    Total number of individuals:     74
sim  <- rxSolve(rx1, theta, evw,  nSub=100, nStud=10,
thetaMat=thetaMat,
## Match boundaries of problem
thetaLower=0,
sigma=c("prop.sd", "add.sd"), ## Sigmas are standard deviations
sigmaXform="identity", # default sigma xform="identity"
omega=c("eta.cl", "eta.v", "eta.ka"), ## etas are variances
omegaXform="variance", # default omega xform="variance"
iCov=data.frame(WT=rnorm(1000, 70, 15), CLCR=rnorm(1000, 65, 25)),
dfSub=74, dfObs=476);

print(sim)``````
``````#> ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂ Solved RxODE object ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂
#> ── Parameters (\$params): ───────────────────────────────────
#> # A tibble: 10,000 x 10
#>    sim.id id      tcl crcl.cl  CLCR    eta.v    tv    WT   tka  eta.ka
#>     <int> <fct> <dbl>   <dbl> <dbl>    <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>   <dbl>
#>  1      1 1      27.0    1.04  54.0  0.907    2.00  71.8  5.69 -0.153
#>  2      1 2      27.0    1.04  19.7 -0.225    2.00  80.2  5.69  0.249
#>  3      1 3      27.0    1.04  45.7  1.66     2.00  66.3  5.69  0.236
#>  4      1 4      27.0    1.04  73.9  0.556    2.00  69.4  5.69 -0.156
#>  5      1 5      27.0    1.04  91.4  0.296    2.00  45.5  5.69 -0.331
#>  6      1 6      27.0    1.04  94.9 -0.680    2.00  35.8  5.69  0.372
#>  7      1 7      27.0    1.04  13.6 -0.327    2.00  95.9  5.69 -0.0760
#>  8      1 8      27.0    1.04  66.2  0.589    2.00  57.3  5.69  0.688
#>  9      1 9      27.0    1.04  71.7 -0.611    2.00  41.0  5.69  0.212
#> 10      1 10     27.0    1.04  76.6  0.00250  2.00  66.5  5.69  0.243
#> # … with 9,990 more rows
#> ── Initial Conditions (\$inits): ────────────────────────────
#> named numeric(0)
#>
#> Simulation with uncertainty in:
#> ● parameters (sim\$thetaMat for changes)
#> ● omega matrix (sim\$omegaList)
#> ● sigma matrix (sim\$sigmaList)
#>
#> ── First part of data (object): ────────────────────────────
#> # A tibble: 50,000 x 8
#>   sim.id    id       time    cl     v    ka ipred   obs
#>    <int> <int>        [h] <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#> 1      1     1 0.20072222 -696.  356.  4.88    NA    NA
#> 2      1     1 0.79938985 -696.  356.  4.88    NA    NA
#> 3      1     1 2.50526151 -696.  356.  4.88    NA    NA
#> 4      1     1 3.38595486 -696.  356.  4.88    NA    NA
#> 5      1     1 9.28579107 -696.  356.  4.88    NA    NA
#> 6      1     2 0.04197341 -992.  128.  7.30    NA    NA
#> # … with 49,994 more rows
#> ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂``````
``````### Notice that the simulation time-points change for the individual

### If you want the same sampling time-points you can do that as well:
evw <- et(amount.units="mg", time.units="hours") %>%
et(amt=100) %>%
et(0, 24, length.out=50) %>%
et(id=1:100)

sim  <- rxSolve(rx1, theta, evw,  nSub=100, nStud=10,
thetaMat=thetaMat,
## Match boundaries of problem
thetaLower=0,
sigma=c("prop.sd", "add.sd"), ## Sigmas are standard deviations
sigmaXform="identity", # default sigma xform="identity"
omega=c("eta.cl", "eta.v", "eta.ka"), ## etas are variances
omegaXform="variance", # default omega xform="variance"
iCov=data.frame(WT=rnorm(1000, 70, 15), CLCR=rnorm(1000, 65, 25)),
dfSub=74, dfObs=476)

s <-sim %>% confint(c("ipred"))``````
``#> summarizing data...done``
``plot(s)``

### 11.3.3 Simulate without uncertainty in `omega` or `sigma` parameters

If you do not wish to sample from the prior distributions of either the `omega` or `sigma` matrices, you can turn off this feature by specifying the `simVariability = FALSE` option when solving:

``````mod <- RxODE({
eff(0) = 1
C2 = centr/V2;
C3 = peri/V3;
CL =  TCl*exp(eta.Cl) ## This is coded as a variable in the model
d/dt(depot) =-KA*depot;
d/dt(centr) = KA*depot - CL*C2 - Q*C2 + Q*C3;
d/dt(peri)  =                    Q*C2 - Q*C3;
d/dt(eff)  = Kin - Kout*(1-C2/(EC50+C2))*eff;
e = eff+eff.err
cp = centr*(1+cp.err)
})

theta <- c(KA=2.94E-01, TCl=1.86E+01, V2=4.02E+01,  # central
Q=1.05E+01, V3=2.97E+02,                # peripheral
Kin=1, Kout=1, EC50=200)                # effects

sigma <- lotri(eff.err ~ 0.1, cp.err ~ 0.1)

sim  <- rxSolve(mod, theta, ev, omega=omega, nSub=100, sigma=sigma,
thetaMat=tMat, nStud=10,
simVariability=FALSE)

s <-sim %>% confint(c("centr", "eff"))``````
``#> summarizing data...done``
``plot(s)``

Note since realizations of `omega` and `sigma` were not simulated, `\$omega.list` and `\$sigma.list` both return `NULL`.

##### 11.3.3.0.1 RxODE multi-threaded solving and simulation

RxODE now supports multi-threaded solving on OpenMP supported compilers, including linux and windows. Mac OSX can also be supported By default it uses all your available cores for solving as determined by `rxCores()`. This may be overkill depending on your system, at a certain point the speed of solving is limited by things other than computing power.

You can also speed up simulation by using the multi-cores to generate random deviates with `mvnfast` (either `mvnfast::rmvn()` or `mvnfast::rmvt()`). This is controlled by the `nCoresRV` parameter. For example:

``````sim  <- rxSolve(mod, theta, ev, omega=omega, nSub=100, sigma=sigma, thetaMat=tMat, nStud=10,
nCoresRV=2);

s <-sim %>% confint(c("eff", "centr"))``````
``#> summarizing data...done``

The default for this is `1` core since the result depends on the number of cores and the random seed you use in your simulation as well as the work-load each thread is sharing/architecture. However, you can always speed up this process with more cores if you are sure your collaborators have the same number of cores available to them and have OpenMP thread-capable compile.

## 11.4 Using prior data for solving

RxODE can use a single subject or multiple subjects with a single event table to solve ODEs. Additionally, RxODE can use an arbitrary data frame with individualized events. For example when using `nlmixr`, you could use the `RxODE/vignettes/theo_sd` data frame

``````library(RxODE)
### Load data from nlmixr
d <- qs::qread("RxODE/vignettes/theo_sd.qs")

### Create RxODE model
theo <- RxODE({
tka ~ 0.45 # Log Ka
tcl ~ 1 # Log Cl
tv ~ 3.45    # Log V
eta.ka ~ 0.6
eta.cl ~ 0.3
eta.v ~ 0.1
ka <- exp(tka + eta.ka)
cl <- exp(tcl + eta.cl)
v <- exp(tv + eta.v)
d/dt(depot) = -ka * depot
d/dt(center) = ka * depot - cl / v * center
cp = center / v
})

### Create parameter dataset
library(dplyr)
parsDf <- tribble(
~ eta.ka, ~ eta.cl, ~ eta.v,
0.105, -0.487, -0.080,
0.221, 0.144, 0.021,
0.368, 0.031, 0.058,
-0.277, -0.015, -0.007,
-0.046, -0.155, -0.142,
-0.382, 0.367, 0.203,
-0.791, 0.160, 0.047,
-0.181, 0.168, 0.096,
1.420, 0.042, 0.012,
-0.738, -0.391, -0.170,
0.790, 0.281, 0.146,
-0.527, -0.126, -0.198) %>%
mutate(tka = 0.451, tcl = 1.017, tv = 3.449)

### Now solve the dataset
solveData <- rxSolve(theo, parsDf, d)

plot(solveData, cp)``````

``print(solveData)``
``````#> ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂ Solved RxODE object ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂
#> ── Parameters (\$params): ───────────────────────────────────
#> # A tibble: 12 x 1
#>    id
#>    <fct>
#>  1 1
#>  2 2
#>  3 3
#>  4 4
#>  5 5
#>  6 6
#>  7 7
#>  8 8
#>  9 9
#> 10 10
#> 11 11
#> 12 12
#> ── Initial Conditions (\$inits): ────────────────────────────
#>  depot center
#>      0      0
#> ── First part of data (object): ────────────────────────────
#> # A tibble: 132 x 8
#>      id  time    ka    cl     v    cp     depot center
#>   <int> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>     <dbl>  <dbl>
#> 1     1 0      2.86  3.67  34.8  0    320.          0
#> 2     1 0.25   2.86  3.67  34.8  4.62 157.        161.
#> 3     1 0.570  2.86  3.67  34.8  7.12  62.8       248.
#> 4     1 1.12   2.86  3.67  34.8  8.09  13.0       282.
#> 5     1 2.02   2.86  3.67  34.8  7.68   0.996     267.
#> 6     1 3.82   2.86  3.67  34.8  6.38   0.00581   222.
#> # … with 126 more rows
#> ▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂▂``````
``````### Of course the fasest way to solve if you don't care about the RxODE extra parameters is

solveData <- rxSolve(theo, parsDf, d, returnType="data.frame")

### solved data
dplyr::as.tbl(solveData)``````
``````#> # A tibble: 132 x 8
#>       id   time    ka    cl     v    cp   depot center
#>    <int>  <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>   <dbl>  <dbl>
#>  1     1  0      2.86  3.67  34.8  0    3.20e+2    0
#>  2     1  0.25   2.86  3.67  34.8  4.62 1.57e+2  161.
#>  3     1  0.570  2.86  3.67  34.8  7.12 6.28e+1  248.
#>  4     1  1.12   2.86  3.67  34.8  8.09 1.30e+1  282.
#>  5     1  2.02   2.86  3.67  34.8  7.68 9.96e-1  267.
#>  6     1  3.82   2.86  3.67  34.8  6.38 5.81e-3  222.
#>  7     1  5.1    2.86  3.67  34.8  5.58 1.50e-4  194.
#>  8     1  7.03   2.86  3.67  34.8  4.55 6.02e-7  158.
#>  9     1  9.05   2.86  3.67  34.8  3.68 1.77e-9  128.
#> 10     1 12.1    2.86  3.67  34.8  2.66 9.43e-9   92.6
#> # … with 122 more rows``````
``data.table::data.table(solveData)``
``````#>      id  time       ka       cl        v        cp         depot    center
#>   1:  1  0.00 2.857651 3.669297 34.81332 0.0000000  3.199920e+02   0.00000
#>   2:  1  0.25 2.857651 3.669297 34.81332 4.6240421  1.566295e+02 160.97825
#>   3:  1  0.57 2.857651 3.669297 34.81332 7.1151647  6.276731e+01 247.70249
#>   4:  1  1.12 2.857651 3.669297 34.81332 8.0922106  1.303613e+01 281.71670
#>   5:  1  2.02 2.857651 3.669297 34.81332 7.6837844  9.958446e-01 267.49803
#>  ---
#> 128: 12  5.07 2.857651 3.669297 34.81332 5.6044213  1.636210e-04 195.10850
#> 129: 12  7.07 2.857651 3.669297 34.81332 4.5392337  5.385697e-07 158.02579
#> 130: 12  9.03 2.857651 3.669297 34.81332 3.6920276  1.882087e-09 128.53173
#> 131: 12 12.05 2.857651 3.669297 34.81332 2.6855080  8.461424e-09  93.49144
#> 132: 12 24.15 2.857651 3.669297 34.81332 0.7501667 -4.775222e-10  26.11579``````